INAIL - Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro

INAIL - Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro

Mappe esposizione a vari inquinanti area di Roma

Questa pagina dà accesso ad una serie di mappe interattive che illustrano in chiave geografica alcuni dei risultati del progetto Expah – “Population Exposure to PAHs”, finanziato dalla Comunità Europea con il programma Life+. Per maggiori informazioni sul Progetto Expah è possibile consultare il link in fondo alla pagina.

Le mappe rappresentano la concentrazione di alcuni inquinanti atmosferici e i corrispondenti livelli di esposizione stimati per la popolazione della città di Roma nel periodo indagato (2011-2012) e in due diversi scenari ipotizzati per il 2020.



The Expah WebGis: a geo-spatial view of the Expah project results
 
This page gives access to a set of web-mapping applications that deliver the Expah Geographic information system contents via interactive thematic maps.
A Geographic information system (Gis) is a set of data models, organization criteria and tools to manage, analyze and show information having a geographic component. It gives a means to highlight the geo-spatial relationships among different types of data concerning a geographic domain, increasing the whole knowledge of phenomena taking place in it.
A Gis has been developed for the Expah Project, that collects simulation results and on-site measurements, together with external ancillary information and geographic reference features that can support interpretation. This Gis is aimed at disseminating information to the public and at presenting a spatial point of view of the Expah datasets to the Project Teams.
The Web-Gis architecture (Dbms, Gis Server, mapping application) is entirely based on Open Source resources (Postgres-PostGis, GeoServer, OpenLayers) and it is OGC standards compliant.
Due to the large amount of data, and to preserve maps readability, a simplified version of the internal Expah-Gis is made available to the public, using a subset of the information managed in the internal geographic database (e.g. only simulation data at 1 km resolution are shown).

Thematic maps
The web interface of the Expah-Gis is a set of interactive thematic maps showing different aspects of the Project results.


Expah experimental campaigns
This map reports information about the Expah chemical and meteorological measurements sites, the parameters measured and the campaigns carried out.
The map also includes local government stations and other continuously acquiring sites which data have been used in the Project, both to integrate chemical measurements (air quality stations) and to be given as input to simulation models (meteorological stations).
Personal sampling measurements have been georeferenced through volunteers homes: this can be considered a good approximation of their mean position, considering their age.
Emission inventory data can be displayed to have an overall view of the emission characteristics of the measurement sites: gridded emission maps retrieved for year 2009 are an original result of Actions 4.3, 4.4 (see Credits).

Multi-temporal PAHs concentration map – year 2011/2012
This map shows the results of the PAHs evaluation activity. It highlights the spatial-temporal relationships among the concentration values of atmospheric PAHs measured at the ground sites and the concentration field at the ground level obtained by simulation modeling.
The map reports information about total PAHs and Benzo[a]pyrene concentration. Indoor and Outdoor values and Indoor/Outdoor ratio at each monitoring site are included. No distinction between Outdoor and Indoor has been made for personal sampling concentrations.
The map is multi-temporal: daily values of concentration can be displayed for the whole time-span of simulations (2011/06/01 – 2012/05/31) and for every day of the experimental campaigns.
Displayed PAHs concentration, both for simulations and ground measurements, is the sum of B[a]P+B[b]F+B[k]F+IP. It is indicated as “Model PAHs” in the pop-up windows. When this expression of total PAHs was not directly computable at ground sites, it has been estimated from the available congeners.
Further information about ground measurements is available from Pop-Up windows. In these tables “PAHs1” stands for the sum of Carcinogenic PAHs + BPE (i.e.: B[a]A + B[bjk]F + B[a]P + IP + DBA + BPE).
Contents of the map are results of the research activity of Actions 3.3, 3.4, 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 (see Credits).

Notes
Most ground measurements have been performed cumulatively during a week: the shown value of concentration is the daily average value. This value is repeated for all days of the measurement week. The actual time-span of the measure can be read in the Pop-Up window.
Some personal sampling measurements were carried out separately daytime and nighttime: in these cases, the daily concentration is obtained as the sum of the two: when one of them is not available, the daily value is underestimated. The actual measurements can be read in the Pop-Up window.


Multi-temporal PM2.5 concentration map – year 2011/2012
This map shows the results of the PM2.5 evaluation activity. It highlights the spatial-temporal relationships among the concentration values of atmospheric PM2.5 measured at the ground sites and the concentration field at the ground level obtained by simulation modeling.
The map reports information about PM2.5 concentration. Indoor and Outdoor values and Indoor/Outdoor ratio at each monitoring site are included. No distinction between Outdoor and Indoor has been made for personal sampling concentrations.
Local government air quality network stations (“Lazio Network stations”) also report PM10 concentrations values in the Pop-Up window, when available.
The map is multi-temporal: daily values of concentration can be displayed for the whole time-span of simulations (2011/06/01 – 2012/05/31) and for every day of the experimental campaigns.
Contents of the map are results of the research activity of Actions 3.3, 3.4, 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 (see Credits).

Notes
The actual time-span of the measures can be read in the Pop-Up window.
Some personal sampling measurements were carried out separately daytime and nighttime: in these cases, the daily concentration is obtained as the sum of the two: when one of them is not available, the daily value is underestimated. The actual measurements can be read in the Pop-Up window.


Children and elders exposure to PAHs and PM2.5 - Year 2011/2012
This map shows elders and children exposure to atmospheric PAHs and PM2.5 related to the atmospheric concentration fields of these pollutants obtained by model simulations. Data contained in the map is research results of the Expah Project Actions 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5.
Exposure at each cell is estimated from the concentration value at the cell (no daily mobility outside the 1km2 cell is considered), using an exposure model developed in the Project. This latter is based on experimentally obtained Infiltration factors (Action 5.2) to predict indoor concentration at different microenvironments and mean time-activity patterns for the target subjects (elders and children) obtained from sample surveys data (Action 3.1).
Exposure values are expressed as yearly average (referred to the simulation time span: June 2001-May 2012), average of the heating period (November–March) and average of the non-heating period (April-October).
Average values of total PAHs (sum of congeners taken into account in the model: B[a]P+B[b]F+B[k]F+IP), Benzo(a)Pyrene and PM2.5 concentration and of PAHs Total Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TTEC) are also included. TTEC expresses the PAHs concentration as the sum of the concentrations of the PAHs congeners, normalized to the Benzo(a)Pyrene toxicity. This parameter is better linked to the potential risk to human health, than the simple sum of concentrations.


Children exposure to PAHs and PM2.5 - year 2020 scenarios
This web map presents scenarios of children exposure to atmospheric PAHs and PM2.5 for the year 2020. Maps are simulation results of the Expah Project Actions 7.1 and 7.2.
Two scenarios have been modelled, based on the 2020 emission scenarios foreseen respectively with current legislation (Curr. Legisl.) and adding the hypothesis of substitution of biomass and coal with natural gas for non-industrial combustion (Curr. Legisl. + Add. Meas.).
Change in emission levels foreseen in Rome in 2020 (with respect to 2009) with current legislation, is:
- CO -28%, NOx -19%, SO2 -16%, NMVOC -3%, PM10 -1%, PAHs +23%.
Change in emission levels foreseen in Rome in 2020 (with respect to 2009) with current legislation plus the above quoted additional measures is:
- CO -59%, NOx -19%, SO2 -25%, NMVOC -11%, PM10 -43%, PAHs -94%.
Yearly, heating period (November–March) and non-heating period (April-October) average exposure levels are shown for total PAHs and B[a]P: Yearly and seasonal averages are shown for PM2.5 exposures.
Children exposure obtained by simulations using the 2009 emission conditions considered in the 2011-2012 air quality simulations can be displayed for comparison.
To make it easier to assess the change in exposure foreseen in 2020 with respect to current levels, two sets of maps showing the percent variation between each of the two 2020 scenarios and the current (2011/12) conditions were also added.

Notes to Exposure maps
A set of ancillary thematic layers overlaid onto the exposure maps helps to identify the potential impact of estimated exposure on people living in Rome and its surroundings. They include:
- Distribution of residential areas, mapped through population density from the last (2011) national census (Istat, 2014); data refer to total population and to the 0-14 and over65 age ranges;
- Distribution of wild areas, obtained from CORINE 2006 LULC data: people are not expected to stay (at least for long time) in these areas: exposure levels are “potential” and do not result in significant risk for human health;
- Location of urban parks, sport and leisure areas (from the Carta Agro-forestale della Provincia di Roma, Camera di Commercio di Roma, 1978): at these places people are exposed to outdoor concentrations when spending free time there;
- Schools and hospitals of Rome municipality (presence of sensible targets), obtained by geolocation of alphanumeric databases (Ministero Istruzione, università, ricerca);
- Traffic limitation zones from the Mobility Agency of Rome and main road network, from the DB-Prior database; this information allow users to qualitatively relate air pollution and exposure with present traffic policies.

Contacts
The Expah-Gis Team (Action 8.1) is accepting suggestions both from the web community and from the other Expah Teams to improve the published maps, either by adding new information, changing visualization parameters, increasing ancillary information.

Contacts: m.bogliolo@inail.it

Credits
Data and information shown in the maps are the research product of the Expah Project Actions. References can be found in the documents listed in the Publications section. Ancillary information used for cartographic reference was obtained by exploiting open data services made available by public and government organizations.

Ultimo aggiornamento: 06/05/2016